Documentation Help Center. The Radar Equation Calculator app solves the basic radar equation for monostatic or bistatic radar systems.

The radar equation relates target range, transmitted power, and received signal SNR. Using this app, you can:. Solve for maximum target range based on the transmit power of the radar and specified received SNR.

This example shows how to compute the maximum detection range of a 10 GHz, 1 kW, monostatic radar with a 40 dB antenna gain and a detection threshold of 10 dB.

From the Calculation Type drop-down list, choose Target Range as the solution. Choose Configuration as monostatic. Assuming the target is a large airplane, set the Target Radar Cross Section value to m 2. This example shows how to use multiple pulses to reduce the transmitted power while maintaining the same maximum target range.

Assume a nonfluctuating target model, and set the Swerling Case Number is 0. This example shows how to solve for the geometric mean range of a target for a bistatic radar system. Specify the Calculation Type as Target Range. Specify the Configuration as bistatic. Provide a Transmitter Gain and a Receiver Gain parameter, instead of the single gain needed in the monostatic case.

Alternatively, to achieve a particular probability of detection and probability of false alarm, open the Detection Specifications for SNR menu. This example shows how to compute the required peak transmit power of a 10 GHz, bistatic X-band radar for a 80 km total bistatic range, and 10 dB received SNR. The system has a 40 dB transmitter gain and a 20 dB receiver gain.

The required receiver SNR is 10 dB. Assume the target is a fighter aircraft having a Target Radar Cross Section value of 2 m 2. Choose Range from Transmitter as 50 km, and Range from Receiver as 30 km. This example shows how to compute the received SNR for a monostatic radar with 1 kW peak transmit power with a target at a range of 2 km. Target Range — solves for maximum target range based on transmit power of the radar and desired received SNR. Peak Transmit — Power computes power needed to transmit based on known target range and desired received SNR.

Specify the wavelength of radar operating frequency in mcmor mm. The wavelength is the ratio of the wave propagation speed to frequency. For electromagnetic waves, the speed of propagation is the speed of light. Denoting the speed of light by c and the frequency in hertz of the wave by fthe equation for wavelength is:. System Losses represents a general loss factor that comprises losses incurred in the system components and in the propagation to and from the target.

Monostatic — Transmitter and receiver are colocated monostatic radar. Bistatic — Transmitter and receiver are not colocated bistatic radar. When the transmitter and receiver are colocated monostatic radarthe transmit and receive gains are equal. This parameter is enabled only if the Configuration is set to Monostatic.Two versions of the Radar Equation are presented, along with auxiliary equations to help the calculation of different parameters.

This page heavily draws on Sandia National Laboratories's Performance Limits for Synthetic Aperture Radar— second editionwhich only considers the monostatic case where the same antenna is used for TX and RX operations. The findings were also checked against Skolnik's Radar Handbook. If there's a drop-down box next to the input text field when you click on a button, then you may choose any of those units from the list.

The equations will adapt. If there is no drop-down box, then please enter the field in the units requested. If no units are mentioned, then the parameter is dimensionless. The red buttons are two versions of the Radar Equation.

They are equivalent in the context of SAR. Briefly, SNR 1 is the ratio between the signal and noise. Higher SNR means that the radar has a better picture of the target.

Lower, worse picture. There are more details about the Radar Equations below. In case the data you have doesn't precisely match either of these equations, the blue buttons are there to try and solve for certain parameters in terms of others.

As such, the numbers are a little squishy - don't rely on them being perfectly accurate. This calculator has two versions of the Radar Equation. This first Radar Equation 3 4 is:. The second version of the Radar Equation 5 has many substitutions that assume a Synthetic Aperture Radar. Sorry, JavaScript must be enabled.

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Change your browser options, then try again. Using the Calculator If there's a drop-down box next to the input text field when you click on a button, then you may choose any of those units from the list. Red Buttons The red buttons are two versions of the Radar Equation.Radar Max Range is determined, ideally speaking, on the properties of the antenna only. A signal at a certain frequency is transmitted, reflected, then hopefully, detected. Due to the three-dimensional propagation of radar waves, frequency hold the highest weight in determining range.

Often, power consumption and range must be balanced for maximum usability. Place order in next. Antenna Downtilt and Coverage Calculator. Balanced Attenuator Calculator. Bridged Tee Attenuator Calculator. Cascaded Noise Figure Calculator. Coaxial Cable Impedance Calculator. CRA Calculator. EIRP Calculator. Free Space Path Loss Calculator. Friis Transmission Calculator. IRA Calculator. Link Budget Calculator. Microstrip Calculator.

Microstrip Patch Antenna Calculator. Noise Figure - Noise Temperature Calculator. N-Way Power Divider Calculator. Pi Attenuator Calculator. Power Added Efficiency Calculator.

Power Density Calculator. Reflection Attenuator Calculator. RF Power Conversion Calculator. Skin Depth Calculator. Stripline Impedance Calculator. Tank Circuit Resonance Calculator. Tee Attenuator Calculator. Temperature Converter. Torque Conversion Calculator.

Unit Conversion Calculator. Waveguide Calculator Circular. Waveguide Calculator Rectangular. Wavelength TEM Calculator. Meters Sq. Centimeters Sq.The radar's maximum range is determined by several parameters, including the size of the radar antenna and the frequency of the signal used. This tool helps you determine the maximum range of a radar system given the required parameters.

To use this tool, simply place the required values in the fields and press the "calculate" button. The maximum radar range is one of the most important concerns for engineers, when constructing radar systems.

There are three known factors that can limit the maximum range of a radar system. First is line of sight which depends on the radar antenna's height above ground. If the antenna cannot directly "see" the object to be detected, the radio path is blocked and must be cleared.

Second is a parameter called "maximum non-ambiguous range". This is the distance the pulse is reflected and received before the next pulse is transmitted. Textbook - Principles of Radio. Technical Article - Estimating Wireless Range. Worksheet - Fundamentals of Radio Communication.

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In Partnership with Keysight Technologies. Don't have an AAC account? Create one now. Forgot your password? Click here. Latest Projects Education. Tools Radar Maximum Range Calculator. Radar Maximum Range Calculator This tool is designed to calculate the maximum distance range that a radar can detect. Meters Sq. Centimeters Sq. Feet Sq. Minimum Detectable Signal. Maximum Range. Overview The radar's maximum range is determined by several parameters, including the size of the radar antenna and the frequency of the signal used. You May Also Like. Log in to comment. Sign In Stay logged in Or sign in with. Continue to site.Pasternack's Friis Transmission Equation Calculator will calculate the received power from an antenna at some distance given a transmission frequency and antenna gains.

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Friis Equation is used to find the ideal power received at an antenna from basic information about the transmission. The only inherent pitfall of Friis equation is the fact that it is only calculated for a single frequency, where transmissions are typically comprised of many.

However, given a high enough center frequency, the difference in received power over the bandwidth should be reasonably small.

### Friis Transmission Calculator

Place order in next. Antenna Downtilt and Coverage Calculator. Balanced Attenuator Calculator. Bridged Tee Attenuator Calculator. Cascaded Noise Figure Calculator. Coaxial Cable Impedance Calculator. CRA Calculator. EIRP Calculator. Free Space Path Loss Calculator. IRA Calculator. Link Budget Calculator. Microstrip Calculator. Microstrip Patch Antenna Calculator.

Noise Figure - Noise Temperature Calculator. N-Way Power Divider Calculator. Pi Attenuator Calculator. Power Added Efficiency Calculator. Power Density Calculator. Reflection Attenuator Calculator. RF Power Conversion Calculator.

Radar Maximum Range Calculator. Skin Depth Calculator.

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Stripline Impedance Calculator. Tank Circuit Resonance Calculator. Tee Attenuator Calculator. Temperature Converter. Torque Conversion Calculator. Unit Conversion Calculator.

### Unit Converter

Waveguide Calculator Circular. Waveguide Calculator Rectangular. Wavelength TEM Calculator. Friis Transmission Calculator Pasternack's Friis Transmission Equation Calculator will calculate the received power from an antenna at some distance given a transmission frequency and antenna gains.

For example, if you wish to input "", just type "25M" instead. See the quick-reference table below for all compatible SI prefixes. Milliwatts Watts dBm dBW.The radar transmits a short radio pulse with very high pulse power.

This pulse is focused in one direction only by the directivity of the antenna, and propagates in this given direction with the speed of light. If in this direction is an obstacle, for example an airplane, then a part of the energy of the pulse is scattered in all directions. A very small portion is also reflected back to the radar. The radar antenna receives this energy and the radar evaluates the contained information.

The distance we can measure with a simple oscilloscope. On the oscilloscope moves synchronously with the transmitted pulse a luminous point and leaves a trail. The deflection starts with the transmitter pulse. The luminescent spot moves to scale on the oscilloscope with the radio wave. At this moment, in which the antenna receives the echo pulse, this pulse is also shown on the oscilloscope.

The distance between the two shown pulses on the oscilloscope is a measure of the distance of the aircraft. The actual range of a target from the radar is known as slant range. Slant range is the line of sight distance between the radar and the object illuminated. While ground range is the horizontal distance between the emitter and its target and its calculation requires knowledge of the target's elevation.

Since the waves travel to a target and back, the round trip time is dividing by two in order to obtain the time the wave took to reach the target. Therefore the following formula arises for the slant range:. The factor of two in the equation comes from the observation that the radar pulse must travel to the target and back before detection, or twice the range. If the respective running time t is known, then the distance R between a target and the radar set can be calculated by using this equation.

Range or distance measurement Figure 1: Runtime measurement by radar. Figure 1: Runtime measurement by radar.Weather radar systems use many equivalent principles to primary radar. The discussion in this module assumes some knowledge of the principles of primary radar. Here to commemorate the equation in the form that we consider the received power as a function of all other influences:.

In the case of rain, the size of a rain drop is very much smaller than the radar wavelength and therefore the Rayleigh backscatter equation gives the echoing area of a raindrop.

The effects of the reflectivity can be seen when looking at a weather pattern with radar. At high altitudes the reflectivity from snow is low. At lower levels, when the snow starts to melt, the snow flakes become coated with water and dramatically increase the radar returns.

Finally the snow flakes melt completely and coalesce into raindrops which are smaller than the snowflakes and fall faster, giving a reduced radar echo. This difference in the principle of the Radar Range Equation when it is applied to Weather Radar systems is identified. This form is still completely unsuitable for meteorological radar applications. It isn't looked at here from the view of a meteorologist, special from the view of radar unit mechanic either.

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If this equation is rearranged again that it can be used to the computing of the range, one then recognizes that the familiar fourth root will be replaced by a square root. But why? The raindrop-filled volume blows up proportionally of the square of the distance! Very much more reflective raindrops fit in the volume at same density. And so very much more energy is reflected as if it is filled with a single aircraft only.

Let us recall the basic statement: The weather radar measures the magnitude of the echo signal. The echo signal should therefore be a function of the naturesize and number of weather objects per unit volume. The individual parameters of the radar set should be summarized as a constant kbecause these parameters should not vary during the weather observation:. It can take values of about 0.  